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e-Learning with a Heart In-depth Italian Lessons
e-Learning with a Heart: in-depth Italian lessons
> Course Materials > Grammar - Verbs 1
VERBS - part 1

Verbs are 'action words'! The verb is the element that conveys information on what the subject does or is and what actions he/she/it accomplishes or undergoes.

INDICATIVO

The "Indicative" is the basic mode we use in order to "indicate" what the subject does or is. We can give information about the subject in the present, in the past or in the future.

The use of the " present " is rather easy (Io amo l'Italia = I love Italy).

We have 3 main kinds of past: " white and black rey logo slides Jimmy Choo London vdijoPYZ
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" (1.Quando ero piccolo, sono andato a Venezia. 2. Garibaldì organizzò la "spedizione dei mille").

The use of the " FOOTWEAR Ballet flats Cafènoir ZWZw3ecyc6
" is also rather easy (sometimes it is even omitted and the present is used instead: 1. Questo fine settimana andrò al mare. 2. Questo fine settimana vado al mare).

AUXILIARY VERBS

"Essere" (to be) and "Avere" (to have) are called "auxiliary verbs"; they are called so because they "help" in the formation of compound tenses ("essere" + the past participle of a verb, "avere" + the past participle of a verb) and the passive construction ("essere" + a verb)

Verb "Essere", Present Indicative Womens Derbys Fabio Rusconi RkSFHRz

Verb "Essere", Present Indicative

[ BEGINNER STUDENTS : please study only the Present Indicative of this verb, as required in Lesson b_1]

BEGINNER STUDENTS

Verb "Essere", complete chart

Verb "Avere", Present Indicative Lesson b_3

Verb "Avere", Present Indicative

[ BEGINNER STUDENTS : please study only the Present Indicative of this verb, as required in lesson 3]

In informal, daily and colloquial situations, Italians often combine the particle "ci" with the verb "avere"; this use of the verb "avere" is grammatically incorrect, but it is pretty common in the spoken language. Therefore you may hear someone asking "ciavete una penna?" (or spelled "c'avete una penna") instead of "avete una penna?" (do you have a pen?) or "ciabbiamo un buon libro da leggere" instead of "abbiamo un buon libro da leggere" (we have a good book to read.) Some Italian writers (Carlo Emilio Gadda...) use the verb "avere" with the particle "ci" in their writings to convey a feeling of 'informal, every day' language.

Verb "Avere", complete chart

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| Domenick Gabrielli, 81, Ex-Judge On New York's Top Court, Is Dead

By ROBERT D. MCFADDEN

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Domenick L. Gabrielli, a prominent upstate jurist who served for a decade as an associate judge of the New York Court of Appeals, the state's highest court, died last Friday at Villa Mary Immaculate Nursing Home in Albany. He was 81 and lived in Albany.

Judge Gabrielli, who was stricken with pneumonia and admitted to St. Peter's Hospital in Albany a month ago, entered the nursing home last Tuesday to convalesce and died of complications arising from the pneumonia, his daughter, Veronica Dumas, said.

In a career that spanned more than 50 years, Mr. Gabrielli, a native of Rochester, was a practicing lawyer, corporation counsel, district attorney and judge who rose from county and children's courts to the State Supreme Court, the Appellate Division and then the Court of Appeals.

A Republican-Conservative, Judge Gabrielli was elected to the Court of Appeals in 1972. Two years later, he was cited by state Republican officials as a possible candidate for lieutenant governor to run with Gov. Malcolm Wilson. In 1978, his was one of seven names submitted to Gov. Hugh L. Carey as candidates for Chief Judge of New York State. Scores of Major Rulings

During his tenure on the high court, Judge Gabrielli participated in scores of major rulings, upholding the constitutionality of state obscenity laws and the New York City landmarks preservation law as well as the creation of a state agency to guide New York City through its fiscal crisis in the mid-1970's. He was a conservative in criminal procedure cases.

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In a 1976 decision written by Judge Gabrielli, the court became one of only a few state courts in the nation to uphold the principle of "reverse" or "benign" discrimination -- giving special treatment in jobs and education to minorities -- under certain circumstances. The United States Supreme Court had by then not ruled on the controversial issue.

The judge's dissenting voice was also prominent in many decisions. He voted against the majority in 1976, for example, when it disqualified former Senator Eugene J. McCarthy as an independent Presidential candidate in the state. Judge Gabrielli retired from the bench in 1982 and practiced law in Rochester and Albany until 1992. 'A Lasting Imprint'

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